Stochastic Vehicle Scheduling

This kind application is the main reason this package was created in the first place.

Problem definition

Vehicle Scheduling involves assigning vehicles to cover a set of scheduled tasks, while minimizing a given objective function.

Deterministic version

An instance of the problem is composed of:

  • A set of tasks $v\in\bar V$:
    • Scheduled task begin time: $t_v^b$
    • Scheduled task end time: $t_v^e (> t_v^b)$
    • Scheduled travel time from task $u$ to task $v$: $t_{(u, v)}^{tr}$
  • Task $v$ can be scheduled after task $u$ on a vehicle path only if: $t_v^b \geq t_u^e + t_{(u, v)}^{tr}$
  • Objective to minimize: number of vehicle used

This problem is very easy to solve using a compact MIP formulation.

Stochastic version

The stochastic version is a variation that introduces random delays that occur after the scheduling is fixed. The objective is now to minimize the expectation of the total delay.

We add the following to instances:

  • Finite set of scenarios $\Omega$.
  • We indroduce three sets of random variables, which take different values depending on the scenario $\omega\in\Omega$:
    • Intrisic delay of task $v$: $\varepsilon_v^\omega$
    • Slack between tasks $u$ and $v$: $S_{uv}^\omega$
  • Given an $o-uv$ path $P$, we define recursively the delay $\Delta_v^\omega$ of task $v$ in scenario $\omega$ along $P$:

\[\boxed{\Delta_v^ω = ε_v^\omega + \max(\Delta_u^\omega - S_{u,v}^\omega, 0)}\]

  • Objective to minimize: $\dfrac{1}{|\Omega|}\sum\limits_{\omega\in\Omega} \Delta_v^\omega$

Column generation formulation

We model an instance by the following acyclic Digraph $D = (V, A)$:

  • $V = \bar V\cup \{o, d\}$, with $o$ and $d$ dummy origin and destination nodes connected to all tasks:
    • $(o, v)$ arc for all task $v\in \bar V$
    • $(v, d)$ arc for all task $v \in \bar V$
  • There is an arc between tasks $u$ and $v$ only if $t_v^b \geq t_u^e + t_{(u, v)}^{tr}$

A feasible vehicle tour is an $o-d$ path $P\in\mathcal P_{od}$. A feasible solution is a set of disjoint feasible vehicle tours fulfilling all tasks exctly once.

Cost of a path $P$: $c_P = \dfrac{1}{|\Omega|}\sum\limits_{\omega\in\Omega}\sum\limits_{v\in V\backslash\{o,d\}}\Delta_v^\omega$

\[\begin{aligned} \min & \sum_{P\in\mathcal{P}}c_P y_P &\\ \text{s.t.} & \sum_{p\ni v} y_p = 1 &\forall v\in V\backslash\{o, d\} & \quad(\lambda_v\in\mathbb R)\\ & y_p\in\{0,1\} & \forall p\in \mathcal{P} & \end{aligned}\]

This formulation can be solved using a column generation algorithm. The associated subproblem is a constrained shortest path problem of the form :

\[\boxed{\min_{P\in\mathcal P_{od}} \left\{c_P - \sum_{v\in P}\lambda_v\right\}}\]

This subproblem can be solved using generalized constrained shortest paths algorithms provided by this package.

Using ConstrainedShortestPaths

using ConstrainedShortestPaths
using GLPK
using Graphs
using JuMP
using Random
using SparseArrays

Create a random instance

Random graph acyclic directed graph

function random_acyclic_digraph(nb_vertices::Integer; p=0.4)
    edge_list = []
    for u in 1:nb_vertices
        for v in (u + 1):(u == 1 ? nb_vertices - 1 : nb_vertices)
            if rand() <= p
                push!(edge_list, (u, v))
    for i in 2:(nb_vertices - 1)
        push!(edge_list, (1, i))
        push!(edge_list, (i, nb_vertices))
    return SimpleDiGraph(Edge.(edge_list))

nb_vertices = 30
nb_scenarios = 10
graph = random_acyclic_digraph(nb_vertices)
{30, 215} directed simple Int64 graph

Random delays and slacks matrices:

nb_edges = ne(graph)
I = [src(e) for e in edges(graph)]
J = [dst(e) for e in edges(graph)]

delays = rand(nb_vertices, nb_scenarios) * 10
delays[end, :] .= 0.0
slacks = [
    if dst(e) == nb_vertices
        [Inf for _ in 1:nb_scenarios]
        [rand() * 10 for _ in 1:nb_scenarios]
    end for e in edges(graph)
slack_matrix = sparse(I, J, slacks);

# Path cost computation
function path_cost(path, slacks, delays)
    nb_scenarios = size(delays, 2)
    old_v = path[1]
    R = delays[old_v, :]
    C = 0.0
    for v in path[2:(end - 1)]
        @. R = max(R - slacks[old_v, v], 0) + delays[v, :]
        C += sum(R) / nb_scenarios
        old_v = v
    return C
path_cost (generic function with 1 method)

Column generation algorithm

We use the dual formulation with constraints generation:

function column_generation(g, slacks, delays)
    nb_vertices = nv(g)
    job_indices = 2:(nb_vertices - 1)

    model = Model(GLPK.Optimizer)

    @variable(model, λ[v in 1:nb_vertices])

    @objective(model, Max, sum(λ[v] for v in job_indices))

    # Initialize constraints set with all [o, v, d] paths
    initial_paths = [[1, v, nb_vertices] for v in 2:(nb_vertices - 1)]
        con[p in initial_paths],
        path_cost(p, slacks, delays) - sum(λ[v] for v in job_indices if v in p) >= 0
    @constraint(model, λ[1] == 0)
    @constraint(model, λ[nb_vertices] == 0)

    while true
        # Solve the master problem
        λ_val = value.(λ)
        # Solve the shortest path subproblem
        (; c_star, p_star) = stochastic_routing_shortest_path(g, slacks, delays, λ_val)
        if c_star > -1e-10
        full_cost = c_star + sum(λ_val[v] for v in job_indices if v in p_star)
        # Add the most violated constraint
        @constraint(model, full_cost - sum(λ[v] for v in job_indices if v in p_star) >= 0)

    return objective_value(model)

obj = column_generation(graph, slack_matrix, delays)
@info "Objective value" obj
┌ Info: Objective value
└   obj = 216.87276861300555

This page was generated using Literate.jl.